Working of Simple Vertical Boiler | Construction of Simple Vertical Boiler | Parts of a Simple Vertical Boiler

Simple Vertical Boiler

What Is a Simple Vertical Boiler?

What Is a Simple Vertical Boiler?

The simple vertical boiler is a boiler in which water is boiled inside a large vertical cylindrical shell, and steam is produced. This is the simplest type of firewater boiler. This boiler produces low pressure & a small amount of steam.

This boiler creates a pressure of about 10 bar. The construction of this boiler is much simpler and easier than any other boiler. These boilers occupy very little space, so it is used where less ground is available for operation. In this boiler, steam is produced under low power conditions such as small power plants for power generation.

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Working of Simple Vertical Boiler:

Working of Simple Vertical Boiler

In simple vertical boilers, the first fuel is added to the furnace through a fire hole. Fuel is placed on the furnace at the bottom of the furnace. When the fuel burns, hot gas is produced, and the ash produced from burning the fuel is collected into ashes.

The hot gas produced by the burning of fuel is then sent to the cross tubes, and the waste gases are then transported to the atmosphere through the chimney.

The heat from the flue gases in the cross tube is transferred to the water, and the water is heated to produce steam. Current water due to convection goes from the lower end of the cross tube to the higher end by natural circulation.

The steam produced by the heat transfer from the vapor gas to the water is then collected at the steam location of the boiler; steam is collected until a certain pressure is reached, and then the steam is released to the gas turbine or engine or any other Use is passed.

Also, Read: Working of Locomotive Boiler | Parts of Locomotive Boiler | Advantages of Locomotive Boiler | Disadvantages of Locomotive Boiler

Construction of Simple Vertical Boiler:

Construction of Simple Vertical Boiler

The largest part of the simple vertical boiler is the vertical cylindrical shell. This is the outermost part of the simple vertical boiler, with other boiler parts contained inside this part. Inside this shell, there is a firebox under the shell. This firebox consists of a furnace, a furnace, and an ashpit. The grate is present below the firebox where fuel or coal is kept and burned in the furnace.

The ashpit is under the furnace where the ash created by the burning fuel is collected. The coal is introduced through the fire hole in the firebox. The cross tube is present in the center of the boiler and is placed horizontally. This tube transfers heat from the flue gas to the water.

The chimney is present above the cross tube. The flue gases from the cross tube are passed into the chimney where it leaves the boiler and goes into the atmosphere.

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Parts of a Simple Vertical Boiler:

Parts of a Simple Vertical Boiler

#1. Vertical Cylindrical Shell

This is the outermost cylindrical vertical shell of the boiler. Other parts of the boilers are inside this part. Most of this cylindrical shell is filled with water, and the rest is for steam.

#2. Cross Tubes

One or more cross tube is riveted or flanged to enhance the heating surface and improve water circulation.

#3. Furnace (or Firebox)

Furnaces are used for the combustion of coal. Coal is burnt here to produce heat.

#4. Grate

It is present under the furnace. This is the place in the furnace where coal is kept.

#5. Fire Door or Fire Hole

Coal is poured into the furnace through this hole or door.

#6. Ashpit

It is available in the boiler to collect the ash deposited by the furnace.

#7. Hand Holes

Hand holes are present opposite the end of each cross tube for cleaning the cross tube in the boiler.

#8. Chimney

A chimney is a vertical cylindrical pipe that extends from the top of the firebox to the 1the top of the shell. It is used to pass smoke from the boiler to the atmosphere.

#9. Steam Stop Valve

The function of steam stop valves is to regulate the flow of steam from within the boiler and stop it completely if required.

#10. Safety Valve

The safety valve is a device that prevents the boiler pressure from rising above its normal working pressure when the boiler pressure exceeds the normal working pressure, thus allowing excess steam to pass into the atmosphere Until the pressure returns to its normal value.

#11. Pressure Gauge

Pressure gauges are used to measure the pressure of steam inside the boiler. It is arranged in front of the boilers.

#12. Water Level Indicator

It is an important device, which indicates the water level inside the boiler. This is a safety device on which the boiler’s safe work depends.

#13. Fusible Plug

The function of the fusible plug is to ignite the boiler furnace when the water level falls below the unsafe level and thus avoid explosion, which may be caused by overheating of the tube and the shell.

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Application of Simple Vertical Boiler:

Application of Simple Vertical Boiler

Here, the different Applications of the simple vertical boiler are as follows:

  • Simple vertical boilers may have applications; for example, a railway steam engine is a railway engine.
  • Simple vertical boilers are used in road vehicles such as steam wagons (steam lorry or steam wagon).
  • The simple vertical boiler has a very well-known application that steams the tractor.
  • The numbers of boats are particularly small, which uses simples vertical boilers to power the engine.
  • In some parts of the world, simple vertical boilers are used in steam asses.
  • Simple vertical boilers are also used in steam cranes and steam steels.

Advantages of Simple Vertical Boiler:

Advantages of Simple Vertical Boiler

Here, the different Advantages of a simple vertical boiler are as follows:

  • Low initial cost because of lesser parts.
  • Low maintenance cost.
  • Simple working.
  • Easy to install and replace.
  • Occupy small space on the ground.
  • The simple vertical boiler has water level tolerance.

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Disadvantages of Simple Vertical Boiler:

Disadvantages of Simple Vertical Boiler

Here, the different Disadvantages of a simple vertical boiler are as follows:

  • Vertical design limits its work in many places.
  • Production of steam is limited due to the limited melt area.
  • Impurities freeze at the bottom and prevent water from heating up.
  • Boiler tubes should be kept small to reduce heights. As a result, most of the available heat is lost through the chimneys, as the tubes have very little time to heat.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Vertical Boiler

The compact, space-saving vertical four-pass shock-proof design has no tubes to loosen or burn. Hurst Vertical Tubeless Boilers allows convenient access to an “Eye High” burner and solid-state controls for trouble-free operation.

Vertical Steam Boiler

Our cyclone tubeless vertical hot water boilers provide exceptionally high efficiencies, lower fuel costs, and extremely rugged construction.

Construction of Boiler

Boiler construction is thus largely the science of joining metal plates, tubing, and piping, in required configurations, so the vessel can withstand these pressure differences and stresses.

In this module we will examine some of the common methods of construction, such as welding, staying, and tube expanding.

Boiler Working

The boiler is essentially a closed vessel inside which water is stored. Fuel (generally coal) is burnt in a furnace and hot gasses are produced. These hot gasses come in contact with water vessels where the heat of these hot gases transfer to the water and consequently steam is produced in the boiler.

Working of Boiler

Hot gasses are formed by burning fuel in the furnace. These glasses are made to come in contact with the water vessel, the point where the heat transfer takes place between the steam and water. Thus, the boiler’s basic principle is to convert water into steam with heat energy.

Simple Vertical Boiler Construction and Operation in the Usa

A simple vertical boiler is a type of steam boiler that consists of a cylindrical shell with a vertical axis. It is commonly used for small-scale applications and is relatively easy to construct and operate. Here is a basic overview of the construction and operation of a simple vertical boiler in the USA:


  • Shell: The boiler shell is a cylindrical vessel made of steel. It provides the housing for all the other components of the boiler.
  • Furnace: The furnace is located at the lower part of the boiler shell. It is where the fuel, such as coal, oil, or gas, is burned to generate heat.
  • Grate: The grate is situated at the bottom of the furnace and supports the fuel during combustion.
  • Combustion chamber: Above the furnace, there is a combustion chamber where the hot gases from the furnace rise and transfer their heat to the water.
  • Water level indicator: A gauge or glass tube is installed on the boiler shell to indicate the water level inside the boiler.


  • Fuel supply: The fuel, depending on the type of boiler, is fed into the furnace manually or automatically. It is ignited to initiate the combustion process.
  • Heat generation: The fuel burns in the furnace, producing hot gases that rise into the combustion chamber. The heat from these gases is transferred to the water surrounding the combustion chamber, heating it and converting it into steam.
  • Steam generation: As the water absorbs heat, it reaches its boiling point and forms steam bubbles. These bubbles rise to the top of the boiler, where they are collected in the steam space.
  • Water level control: The water level inside the boiler is maintained within safe limits using a feedwater system. If the water level drops too low, the feedwater pump adds more water to the boiler.
  • Steam release: As steam accumulates in the steam space, it is released through the steam outlet. The pressure is regulated by the safety valve, which opens automatically if the pressure exceeds the set limit.

Components of a Simple Vertical Boiler in the Usa

  • Water level indicator. A water level indicator is responsible for helping the operates figure out the water temperature.
  • Fusible plug. It is responsible for igniting the boiler.
  • Cross tubes.
  • Furnace.
  • Grate.
  • Vertical cylindrical shell.
  • Pressure gauge.
  • Steam stop valve.

Efficiency of Simple Vertical Boilers in the USA

The efficiency of a simple vertical boiler, like any other boiler, depends on various factors, including design, construction, fuel type, and operating conditions. Generally, vertical boilers tend to have lower efficiency compared to larger, more complex boilers. However, their simplicity and ease of operation make them suitable for certain applications where high efficiency is not the primary concern.

Simple vertical boilers typically have efficiencies ranging from 70% to 80%. This means that 70% to 80% of the fuel’s energy content is converted into useful heat, while the remaining percentage is lost as waste heat through the flue gases, radiation, and other heat losses. These efficiency figures are approximate and can vary based on specific design features and operating conditions.

Factors that can affect the efficiency of a simple vertical boiler include:

  • Combustion efficiency: Efficient combustion of the fuel is essential for maximizing the boiler’s efficiency. Factors such as proper air-fuel ratio, adequate mixing of fuel and air, and complete combustion contribute to combustion efficiency.
  • Heat transfer efficiency: The ability of the boiler to transfer heat from the combustion gases to the water affects its efficiency. Factors such as the surface area of the heat transfer area, the cleanliness of the heating surfaces, and the insulation of the boiler shell can impact heat transfer efficiency.
  • Boiler size and capacity: The size and capacity of the boiler play a role in its efficiency. Generally, larger boilers tend to have higher efficiencies due to their ability to incorporate more advanced features, such as economizers and heat recovery systems.
  • Fuel type: The type of fuel used in the boiler can affect its efficiency. Different fuels have varying energy contents and combustion characteristics, which can influence the boiler’s overall performance.
  • Maintenance and operation: Proper maintenance and operation practices, including regular cleaning, tuning, and monitoring, can help optimize the efficiency of a simple vertical boiler.

Maintenance tips for Simple Vertical Boilers in the USA

Proper maintenance is essential for ensuring the safe and efficient operation of simple vertical boilers in the USA. Here are some maintenance tips to consider:

  • Regular inspections: Schedule regular inspections of the boiler to identify any signs of wear, damage, or potential issues. This includes inspecting the boiler shell, flue, combustion chamber, furnace, and heating surfaces.
  • Cleanliness: Keep the boiler and its surrounding area clean and free from debris, dust, and obstructions. Regularly remove ash, soot, and other accumulated deposits from the furnace, combustion chamber, and heating surfaces.
  • Water treatment: Proper water treatment is crucial to prevent scale formation, corrosion, and fouling in the boiler. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations and ensure the water used in the boiler is treated appropriately. Regularly test and monitor water quality parameters.
  • Check water level: Regularly check and maintain the proper water level in the boiler. Ensure that the water level controls and gauges are functioning correctly and calibrated accurately.
  • Safety valve maintenance: Inspect the safety valve periodically to ensure it is in good condition and functioning correctly. Test the safety valve’s operation and reset mechanism as per manufacturer guidelines.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Simple Vertical Boilers in the Usa

Simple vertical boilers have both advantages and disadvantages when compared to other types of boilers. Here are some of the key advantages and disadvantages of simple vertical boilers in the USA:


  • Compact size: Simple vertical boilers are relatively small and compact compared to larger boilers. This makes them suitable for applications where space is limited or portability is required.
  • Simplicity: These boilers have a straightforward design and fewer components compared to more complex boilers. This simplicity often leads to easier operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting.
  • Quick steam generation: Simple vertical boilers can quickly generate steam due to their smaller water volume and shorter heat-up time. This can be advantageous in applications that require rapid steam production.
  • Cost-effective: Simple vertical boilers are generally less expensive to purchase and install compared to larger, more complex boilers. They have a lower initial cost, making them accessible for small-scale or budget-conscious applications.
  • Ease of maintenance: With their simple design, maintenance tasks such as cleaning and inspections are typically easier to perform. This can help minimize downtime and reduce maintenance costs.


  • Lower efficiency: Simple vertical boilers generally have lower efficiency compared to larger, more advanced boiler designs. Their simpler construction and limited heat transfer surface area can result in higher fuel consumption and lower overall efficiency.
  • Limited capacity: Due to their small size, simple vertical boilers have limited steam generation capacity. They may not be suitable for applications that require high steam volumes or continuous operation.
  • Fuel limitations: Simple vertical boilers may have limitations when it comes to the type of fuel they can use. They are typically designed for specific fuel types such as coal, oil, or gas and may not be adaptable to other fuel sources.
  • Limited control options: Compared to more advanced boiler designs, simple vertical boilers may have limited control options and features. This can restrict the ability to fine-tune the boiler’s performance or integrate with advanced control systems.
  • Safety considerations: Simple vertical boilers may have certain safety considerations, such as the need for proper water level control and monitoring. Ensuring safe operation and compliance with safety regulations is crucial.

What Are the 2 Types of Boilers?

What are the basic types of Boilers? There are two basic types of boilers: firetube and watertube. The fundamental difference between these boiler types is which side of the boiler tubes contain the combustion gases or the boiler water/steam.

Vertical Boiler Example

When the axis of the boiler shell is horizontal the boiler is called horizontal boiler. Example: Lancashire boiler, Locomotive boiler, Babcock and Wilcox boiler etc. If the axis is vertical, the boiler is called vertical boiler Example: Cochran boiler.

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